In my opinion, in an Indian context, yes and no.
It sounds horrifying, and it is quite catchy to talk about everyone consuming plastic particles (fibers) from almost everything we eat or drink.
I am sure this is harmful, primarily because it poses the same problems we face when we use non food grade plastic containers for food. It leaches BPA and other nasty toxins into our food. It could also leach dyes and other contaminants.
However, at a credit card’s worth of plastic in a week, I doubt the leached contaminants are more problematic than what the average Indian already gets from plastic food containers and food packaging (much of which in India is NOT food grade).
As far as the plastic particles are concerned, unless you breathe it and it goes into your lungs, it likely does no harm at all. Plastic is unlikely to react to anything the stomach throws at it and is indigestible. It will just harmlessly pass through the alimentary canal.
All this is not to say I consider plastic pollution harmless. It causes a lot of damage in so many ways and must be stopped.
However, the risks of ingesting plastic from food and water are overblown in an Indian context. We have many more contaminants in our food that are far more harmful, and even the plastic leaching problem is much more from food and fluid containers and plastic food packaging, than from ingesting it through water.
I may be wrong. I am happy to be educated otherwise.