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Propyl gallate (E310 or IN310) is in use as an antioxidant since 1948 to stabilize cosmetics, food packaging materials, and foods containing fats.
As a food additive, it can be found in edible fats, oils, mayonnaise, shortening, baked goods, candy, dried meat, fresh pork sausage, and dried milk, and it is used in hair grooming products, pressure-sensitive adhesives, lubricating oil additives, and transforming oils.
Propyl gallate is produced by the esterification of gallic acid with propanoyl, at a temperature between 100°C and180°C.
Propyl Gallate causing cancer and tumours in Rats
A National Toxicology Program study reported an association with tumors in male rats and rare brain tumors in two female rats (NTP 1982).
The best safety studies, which were published by the U.S. government, yielded unusual results. Propyl gallate appeared to cause more cancers (in several organs) in rats treated with a low dose than with either a zero dose (the controls) or a high dose. That finding may be indicative of an “endocrine disruptor,” as well as a carcinogen. This additive needs to be better studied.
A study was conducted on the effect of propyl gallate on rats, it was conducted by feeding rats, diets containing 6,000 or 12,000 ppm propyl gallate to groups for 103 weeks.
Thyroid follicular-cell adenomas or carcinomas (combined) occurred in male rats at a high rate. Rare tumors (an astrocytoma or a glioma) were found in the brains of two low-dose female rats.
Increased incidences of hepatic cytoplasmic vacuolization and suppurative inflammation of the prostate were observed in dosed male rats. These findings were considered to be related to administration of propyl gallate.

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