Dark brown colour made from sucrose in the presence of ammonia, ammonium sulphate, sulphur dioxide or sodium hydroxide. The types of caramel colour available include plain (spirit) caramel (prepared by controlled heat treatment of carbohydrates with or without an acid or base), caustic sulphite caramel (produced by heat treatment of carbohydrates with sulphur containing compounds), ammonia caramel (heat treatment in the presence of ammonia) and sulphite ammonia caramel.; the HACSG* recommends to avoid it as it can cause hyperactivity. Some caramels may damage genes, slow down growth, cause enlargement of the intestines and kidneys and may destroy vitamin B. It can be manufactured without ammonia. Used in oyster, soy, fruit and canned sauces, beer, whiskey, biscuits, pickles, cakes, doughnuts, flour products, chocolate products, fizzy drinks, beer, wine, sweets, crisps, bread, pates, ice cream, sauces, pickles, preserves, vegetable protein and similar meat substitutes
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