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Anthocyanins and anthocyanidins are a large group of natural colours. The colour of most fruits, flowers and berries is made up from a combination of anthocyanins and anthocyanidins. Anthocyanins always contain a carbohydrate molecule, whereas anthocyanidins lack this molecule. The individual compounds are isolated from different plant species. E163(i)-(iii) are mixtures.
Function & characteristics:
E163a cyanidin : red
E163b delphinidin : blue
E163c malvidin : purple
E164d pelargonidin : orange
E164e peonidin : red-brown
E165f petunidin : dark red
Widely used, but the colours are rather unstable. Temperature, light and pH can influence the colour.
Daily intake:
None determined except for E163(ii) : up to 2.5 mg/kg body weight
Side effects :
No side effects known.
Dietary restrictions :
None, all compounds can be consumed by vegans and vegetarians and all religious groups except Jews, as these products my be derived from grapes.

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